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Alice Mabel Gray: Meet Diana of the Dunes


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Alice Mabel Gray

Alice Mabel Gray was a woman ahead of her time. She was intelligent, accomplished, a visionary and an early preservationist. Born in 1881, during the Gilded Age (1878-1889), she grew up in the busy city of Chicago, Illinois. The time Alice was born and lived in was significant in Unites States history. For emigrants who came looking for an opportunitiy the American dream seemed to be within reach as the railroad and steel boom brought jobs and instant wealth to people who might not otherwise have a chance to enjoy a better life. Families became wealthier and it is no coincidence Alice grew up in a well to do upper class family, educated and the head of her class. But she like many women of her time and used her intelligence and status to further her curiosities in mathematics, astronomy and foreign language.

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US Naval Observatory

After graduating from the University of Chicago, Alice found work as Computer under the direct supervision of Professor William Eichelberger at the United States Naval Observatory. The work was not satisfying for Alice as she considered, “the life of a salary earner in the cities is slavery, a constant fight for the means of living”. In 1905 her continuing educational interests brought her overseas to Gottingen University where she befriended Bohemians, who enjoyed free roaming and a simple lifestyle infused very much with nature. Upon returning to the United States she took up a simpler secretarial job. Soon after realizing her true passion was environmental studies she gave up everything and moved to the Lake Michigan dunes where she earned the nickname, “Diana of the Dunes”. It would haunt her for the rest of her life.

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Alice in the dunes

Alice was more than a circus spectacle or a folklore nymph. She was a visionary and preservationist. She loved nature and longed to be as close to it as possible. In the dunes, Alice could observe nature in its original form. Alice was charitable as well. She shared her knowledge with others by educating the public. She passed on any information she could get her hands on in order to make people realize the beauty of the dunes. She also wanted the public to know how important the dunes were and how much they offered for learning and research. The dunes provided her a peaceful place to live and study as well and she found amazement at the reaction people gave as they listened to her speeches. She was able to sustain herself by selling driftwood boxes to buy needed commodities. Even though it was a far cry from the lavish lifestyle others enjoyed with the Gilded Age she made her life simple and it was good enough.

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Gary, Indiana excavation, 1906

Solitude and opportunity for scientific research was short lived as the encroaching industrial age expanded Gary, Indiana which was situated next to the dunes. The dunes became a focal point in a proposed steel plant that would bring growth opportunity for the town. The only problem was that the dunes being so close to the plant placement plans threatened the lands natural habitat. Alice became alarmed at this and joined forces with local activists who opposed the expansion. They argued it was not environmentally conducive to move the plant so close to the dunes and would harm research data. To offer an alternative and a protesting one at that, The Prairie Club decided to garner public support for the establishment of a park. In the 1920s the Indiana Dunes State Park was established. It seemed Alice and the support of others pulled off the impossible of preservations of the dunes. She did not enjoy it much for long. Because of her odd behavior as a recluse, her troubled relationship with her husband, and public taunting she became known as, “Diana of the Dunes”. She longed for quiet and privacy the dunes had afforded her but no longer found and planned to relocate to the Texas coast before her untimely death in 1925 at the age of 43.

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Indiana Tourism

For many years a festival was celebrated in honor of Alice and others who worked hard to preserve the beauty and heritage of the dunes. But because of poor revenue and a lack of general public interest, the celebration was discontinued. Today anyone who wishes to visit the dunes may do so. It remains as a reminder of the need to preserve such nature so that many people in the future may enjoy quiet solitude to observe and reflect.

Split Rock Lighthouse


Split Rock Lighthouse

Split Rock lighthouse or the Split Rock Light station as it was historically called, sits upon a huge rock overlooking part of the Great Lakes harbor water transit system. Located along Minnesota’s North shore and constructed between 1909 and 1910, this lighthouse’s sole purpose was to stand guard and protect steel frigates navigating through the dense fog that often hovers just above the water there.

During the industrial age, Two Harbors and Duluth-Superior sat next to a massive iron mountain range. The iron deposits in the mountains played a vital role in enabling America to compete and successfully become a world steel magnate. Unfortunately, the routes that ships transporting the ore faced were rocky bottoms and narrow passage ways and often dangerous to navigate. Weather changes added to the many threats shipmen faced daily  transporting the ore.

In 1905, a devastating storm blew through the harbor corridor, overturning a helpless barge, the Madeira. The storm was so strong and violent it caused it’s tow ship, William Edenborn’s line to snap. Loss of life and the tragic struggle of the crews on both vessels witnessed by onlookers ashore, encouraged the lobbying of Congress for the Split Rock Lighthouse to be built. Support for new, safer measures and laws were needed due to the poor visibility by the ships of the far away shore that made navigation treacherous.

In 1907 funding poured in, granted by congress, for the building of the lighthouse. Support for the funding was provided by documentation of past accidents by the Lake Carrier Association.

This lighthouse has seen many repairs and renovations on its surrounding property but the building itself is a remarkable piece of architecture soundly built. It has withstood the years and retained its pre 1930’s appeal. It is a great piece of living history to visit. The lighthouse and the grounds it sits upon tell the story as it continues to do its duty standing guard over the harbor to this day.

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