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Evolution of American Pharmacy


Out with the Old, in with the NewImage result for modern pharmacy

Beginning in 1950 pharmacy begin to change in many ways due to advances in technology. Just twenty years earlier pharmacists still compounded prescription medications. But with new technology and innovative pharmaceutical practices, the profession saw a twenty-five percent decrease in the need for compounding. New marketing techniques allowed for the production of packaged ready-made drugs. As a result, large pharmaceutical companies sprang up to keep up with demand.

Post World War II

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After the second world war ended in 1945, many veterans dealt with drug addiction and became susceptible to adverse reactions due to taking dangerous medications. Government agencies together with watch groups worked to monitor the problem and find ways to reduce unnecessary injury and death resulting from the consumption of unmonitored drugs. Lawmakers addressed the issue by passing strict guidelines for the use and dispense of medication.  Later in 1951 Congressman, Frank B. Keefe, of Wisconsin, put forth an amendment to the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. This change defined the difference between over the counter and behind the counter meds.

1950s

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This decade saw a growth in the availability of medications. Penicillin hit the market. Hospitals developed a system that allowed a pharmacist to dispense a generic product that mimicked a name brand product. Many pharmaceutical manufacturers’ protested this idea arguing that this would open up an unfair competitive product but complied with the law anyway.

1960s

Pharmaceutical centers begin with Eugene V. White who turned his drug store into an office type setting. He set the example for other pharmacy professionals to follow. Pharmacists’ role evolved to acting as a pharmaceutical consultant to customers. As a consultant, the pharmacist could apply more efficient safety controls for patients. Consulting was fruitful and lead to an ethics code established by the American Pharmacist Association and later cooperation with Medicare and Medicaid. As a result, expert pharmacists became the first line of inspection for accuracy and the communication of drug information between regulators and consumers. Third-party programs such as insurance agencies also required a pharmacist’s observation for accuracy and the necessity of prescriptions but still influenced consumers to purchase name brand drugs. Because of this, a thorough set up of further laws were in enacted to protect consumers.

1970s

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Computers added relief to the pharmacy with the replacement of paperwork and tracked harmful drug interactions, doses, etc., thus improving prescription care for patients.

1980s

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It seemed that over night, Walmart stores opened up in small towns across America and impacted small businesses to include corner drug stores. Many of these mall drug stores closed. A new demand for mail service prescriptions appeared as well. Managed patient care also became the norm. Pharmacies in the middle between patient and management companies needed to find ways to evolve with the times and so, pharmacy store management firms were created.

The 1990s and Beyond

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Pharmacists worked to meet the demand of growing populations in need of pharmaceutical care. The pharmacy today is run by a bunch of support positions. Pharmacists are at the top of this management. As the new technologies, innovations and improvements are made in medical care, the support for pharmacy operation does as well.

The Future of Pharmacy

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What will pharmacies look like in the future? What innovations can be created to speed up the waiting period for customers and their medications? How can we lower cost for these prescriptions for the consumer? What is the future role of pharmacist technicians and the pharmacists themselves?

These are a few questions to contemplate about when thinking about the future of pharmacy and may predict how the pharmacy profession will evolve for generations to come.

References:

Higby, Gregory J. “The Continuing Evolution of American Pharmacy Practice, 1952–2002.” Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (1996), vol. 42, no. 1, 2002, pp. 12–15., doi:10.1331/108658002763538017.

All pictures courtesy of Google Images.

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Tammys AllThings History Turns Five


 

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Five years ago, I created my history blog. I did this because I wanted to connect with others who love history and because I enjoy writing about it. Since then this blog has offered me a space to experiment and to dump information out of my brain so I can add more. Reading is good, but writing helps me remember what I read. All the knowledge I get from reading and writing builds my history skills and the ability to think critically instead of just looking at the views of others and taking them at their word. I hope to blog more regularly in the coming months and enjoy other history blogs. If you have a blog or favorite history place, please send it my way.

Here are the stats updated to the present:

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Thank you to all who read and share this blog.

 

War Toys_1


History That Interests Me

Below are three pics of some of my summer finds at rummage sales or antique stores. Although I’ve been a military miniature collector (and painter) for most of my life I never branched out into collectible war toys that were manufactured for most of the last century but are increasingly rare today.

The models below carry the brand  name Midgetoys. I confess that growing up I never heard of Midgetoys but probably saw them in the various “dimestores” that were popular in the 1960s like Woolworths or Ben Franklin.

http://www.esnarf.com/MTstory.htm  A little research turned up a link titled The Midgetoys Story.

Midgetoys were created by Al and Earl Herdklotz in 1948. The Herdklotz’s ran a machine shop and during WW2 and were involved in the war production industry like every other company in the US.

After the war the brothers got the idea of entering the die cast model field…

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#NeverForget: Four Little Girls and Two Little Boys


How #NEVERFORGET can be applied to the past beyond September 11.

Diary of a Historian

On September 15, 1963, Addie Mae Collins, Carol Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, and Cynthia Wesley were murdered in the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama. Countless others were injured in the bombing of this church which has been a cornerstone in the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham. Yesterday, as many posted images of these four little girls and #neverforget, it seems as if we forgotten the other victims of this date, Virgil Ware and Johnny Robinson. This is not to dismissed the story of Addie, Carol, Carole, and Cynthia. No, this is just a call to remember the slain lives taken that day as a result of hate.

Four Little Girls

I recall seeing Ava Duvernay’s Selma earlier this year. As a historian, there were no surprises for me in the movie. When I watched the four little girls walking down the stairs my heart became heavy and…

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Why We All Love Pirates


Meet The Keystone Kops


Silent-ology

Slapstick!  Mayhem!  Incompetence!  Buffoonery!  Clumsiness!  Craziness!  Bungling!   Chasing!  Running!  Zaniness!  Now quick, say the first words that come to your mind…

…And I’ll bet the $2.38 that I have in my pocket that you just said “Keystone Kops.” Cue their most famous photo.

Image result for keystone cops

Quiz: Name the film this publicity pic is from! (The answer will be at the end of this post.)

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Development of the American Pharmacy Part 2


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By the 1850s, the pharmacy became big business in America. Americans increasingly found the availability of retail drug stores convenient and affordable. When a customer entered a drug store, they would see the Apothecary (owner of the drug store) managing pharmacists, employing sales and stock clerks and providing quality product based on the United States Pharmacopeia. The future of the pharmaceutical profession looked promising for growth and potential. However, this was not simply the case. Salespeople outside of the pharmacy began imitating and selling imitations of products sold in drugstores. Not only were customers unaware of the falsehood of their purchases but that some of the drugs they purchased also posed a danger to public health. The American Pharmaceutical Association was aware that there was no effective way to regulate these false remedies. Even with this growing threat to the professional pharmaceutical business, Pharmacist’s could not find a way to combat the problem even though possible solutions were sought and discussed (1).

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Shortly after 1852, the newly established American Pharmaceutical Association dealt with some serious issues affecting the pharmaceutical profession. The financial crisis, brought on by a world trade economic problem, slowed pharmaceutical commerce, and this caused many retail drug stores to close down. Between the years 1860 and 1865, the Civil War, like other wars before, strengthened the professional side of pharmacy by the speedy fulfillment of medicine to the battlefield. The fast pace that continued in peacetime after the war allowed pharmacists to re-open the market but, capitalism once again affected the profession. The fast production of medicines and remedies meant less quality of the product. Between 1880 and 1890, state regulators addressed the problem by expediting the regulation of the manufacturing and sale of drugs. This improved the quality of pharmaceuticals, thus strengthening public safety and contributed to consumer satisfaction once again (2).

 

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As physicians and pharmacists separated their profession, pharmacists concentrated specifically on their chemistry skills to create custom medicines and remedies for patient comfort. Pharmacists labeled their medications with their name and photo and directions for use of the product. By doing this pharmacists stood by his or her product to ensure the product was legitimate and safe. Factories increased the production of pills by using a press to replicate them. However, mass production decreased the value of the product. To change this, pharmacist’s added a variety of store features in order to entice customers. These included refreshing soda fountains, photography supplies, veterinary products and women’s cosmetics (3).

detroit images

 

As business improved at the turn of the century, capitalism inadvertently sent the pharmaceutical profession spinning ahead to meet demands of industrialism and twentieth-century innovation. Customers could still enjoy the convenience of a speedy Medicine, and medicinal remedies and they could trust the product was worth every penny spent. The convenience of mass marketing and capitalism both supported the development of the American pharmacy into the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

(1) Glenn Sonnedecker, The American Practice of Pharmacy, 1902-1952, in Gregory Higby and Elaine Condouris Stroud, American Pharmacy (1852-2002): A Collection of Historical Essays (Madison, WI: American Institute of the History of Pharmacy, 2005), 5-6.

(2) Ibid., 6.; For general information (not a scholarly source) on the financial crisis see, Panic of 1857, last modified on May 16, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panic_of_1857

(3) Sonnedecker, 6.

Write Me a Story Challenge


Here is my response:

That day In 1863, far away in the distance, the sound of gunfire, artillery shells and the shouts of men and boys in the throes of pain and death, we sat, together, reflecting. Each, to their thoughts, but unified in the gratefulness, that we remained unchanged and together as one at this moment in time.

Your turn!

Jane Dougherty Writes

Lately I’ve been having a lot of fun writing one or two sentence stories and finding suitable pictures to illustrate them. Occasionally I’ve done it the other way round; seen a picture and thought of a story to match it.

Today it’s your turn. I’m posting a painting that I’ve used before to illustrate a poem, Odilon Redon’s Flower-Clouds, and I’m throwing it open to anyone who wants to have a go at writing a one or two sentence story to go with it.

Post it on your blog and leave the link in the comments box below, or leave the story in the box if you’d rather.

If there’s a good response I’m make it a regular challenge with a set day and I might even pick a weekly winner. If nobody’s interested I’ll forget I ever mentioned it.

See what you can come up with this week. I’ll…

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Good Rockin


A short History On Saturday and gardening! This blog post offers a joyful blend of Day Lilly, music and history.

a north east ohio garden

another daylily named for jazz music.  Good Rockin Tonight.  i guess i should stop right there.  and let the picture talk for itself.  we will try not to trample it with too much detail.  the music is by Roy Brown and the year 1947.  the flower is by Dan Bachman and the year it started playing was 2009.  it is an 8 inch flower 20.5 cm on a 41 inch scape 104 cm.  i hope you enjoy it.  two images.  oh and it is a late season bloomer that will be making music in the garden for a while yet.

good rockin tonight macrogood rockin tonight det

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