Search

Tammy's All Things History

Bringing the Past to Life!

Evolution of American Pharmacy


Out with the Old, in with the NewImage result for modern pharmacy

Beginning in 1950 pharmacy begin to change in many ways due to advances in technology. Just twenty years earlier pharmacists still compounded prescription medications. But with new technology and innovative pharmaceutical practices, the profession saw a twenty-five percent decrease in the need for compounding. New marketing techniques allowed for the production of packaged ready-made drugs. As a result, large pharmaceutical companies sprang up to keep up with demand.

Post World War II

Image result for food drug cosmetic act 1938

After the second world war ended in 1945, many veterans dealt with drug addiction and became susceptible to adverse reactions due to taking dangerous medications. Government agencies together with watch groups worked to monitor the problem and find ways to reduce unnecessary injury and death resulting from the consumption of unmonitored drugs. Lawmakers addressed the issue by passing strict guidelines for the use and dispense of medication.  Later in 1951 Congressman, Frank B. Keefe, of Wisconsin, put forth an amendment to the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. This change defined the difference between over the counter and behind the counter meds.

1950s

Image result for generic drugs

This decade saw a growth in the availability of medications. Penicillin hit the market. Hospitals developed a system that allowed a pharmacist to dispense a generic product that mimicked a name brand product. Many pharmaceutical manufacturers’ protested this idea arguing that this would open up an unfair competitive product but complied with the law anyway.

1960s

Pharmaceutical centers begin with Eugene V. White who turned his drug store into an office type setting. He set the example for other pharmacy professionals to follow. Pharmacists’ role evolved to acting as a pharmaceutical consultant to customers. As a consultant, the pharmacist could apply more efficient safety controls for patients. Consulting was fruitful and lead to an ethics code established by the American Pharmacist Association and later cooperation with Medicare and Medicaid. As a result, expert pharmacists became the first line of inspection for accuracy and the communication of drug information between regulators and consumers. Third-party programs such as insurance agencies also required a pharmacist’s observation for accuracy and the necessity of prescriptions but still influenced consumers to purchase name brand drugs. Because of this, a thorough set up of further laws were in enacted to protect consumers.

1970s

Image result for computer history

Computers added relief to the pharmacy with the replacement of paperwork and tracked harmful drug interactions, doses, etc., thus improving prescription care for patients.

1980s

Image result for walmart

It seemed that over night, Walmart stores opened up in small towns across America and impacted small businesses to include corner drug stores. Many of these mall drug stores closed. A new demand for mail service prescriptions appeared as well. Managed patient care also became the norm. Pharmacies in the middle between patient and management companies needed to find ways to evolve with the times and so, pharmacy store management firms were created.

The 1990s and Beyond

Image result for future of technology

Pharmacists worked to meet the demand of growing populations in need of pharmaceutical care. The pharmacy today is run by a bunch of support positions. Pharmacists are at the top of this management. As the new technologies, innovations and improvements are made in medical care, the support for pharmacy operation does as well.

The Future of Pharmacy

Image result for wave of future

What will pharmacies look like in the future? What innovations can be created to speed up the waiting period for customers and their medications? How can we lower cost for these prescriptions for the consumer? What is the future role of pharmacist technicians and the pharmacists themselves?

These are a few questions to contemplate about when thinking about the future of pharmacy and may predict how the pharmacy profession will evolve for generations to come.

References:

Higby, Gregory J. “The Continuing Evolution of American Pharmacy Practice, 1952–2002.” Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (1996), vol. 42, no. 1, 2002, pp. 12–15., doi:10.1331/108658002763538017.

All pictures courtesy of Google Images.

Advertisements

Tammys AllThings History Turns Five


 

Image result for update

Five years ago, I created my history blog. I did this because I wanted to connect with others who love history and because I enjoy writing about it. Since then this blog has offered me a space to experiment and to dump information out of my brain so I can add more. Reading is good, but writing helps me remember what I read. All the knowledge I get from reading and writing builds my history skills and the ability to think critically instead of just looking at the views of others and taking them at their word. I hope to blog more regularly in the coming months and enjoy other history blogs. If you have a blog or favorite history place, please send it my way.

Here are the stats updated to the present:

My homepage has 242 hits from search engines. Top search drivers are:

Facebook
Pinterest
Wordpress
Twitter

Top Blog Posts:

California Gold Rush and Chinese Immigration
Alice Mabel Gray: Meet Diana of the Dunes
The Black Sox Scandal-Fixing the 1919 World Series
Kearney Cross
Blogs about Belding, Michigan
Development of the American Pharmacy
Blogs about Benjamin F. Butler

Top countries that have visited:

United States
United Arab Emirates
South Korea
Australia
Canada
Hong Kong China
Ireland
Estonia
Switzerland
Turkey

442 Followers by email and 67 of them other bloggers
4, 368 visits

Thank you to all who read and share this blog.

 

History on Saturday: Pilgrim Hall Museum


Image result for pilgrims

History On Saturday

Saturdays are a great time to gather the family up, bring a group, go on a date or venture out alone and visit webs and real-time historical sites. Today’s feature is:

The Pilgrim Hall Museum

The Pilgrim Hall Museum is a fascinating place to visit. The museum offers a way for visitors to learn about folks who immigrated to a new land to start a new life. We watch shows on TV today about going to new places to start a new life such the as survivor shows. These early Americans were not just trying to prove they could survive but to begin anew, build community, raise families and form government. In the Pilgrim Museum, you can see artifacts that early Americans brought with them on the Mayflower. You can also meet Native Americans that helped our first pioneers and the relationships they formed.

Visit, browse, and check out the gift shop which has books to further explore artifacts and the topics presented. View the online exhibits and escape to time in the past and see how it relates to our modern time.

The Pilgrim Museum homepage and online exhibits: http://www.pilgrimhall.org/about.htm

The gift shop: http://pilgrimhallmuseum.pinnaclecart.com/

Happy History on Saturday!

Family Life of Benjamin F. Bulter


Young Benjamin F. Butler

Image result for benjamin f butlerIn 1839, Benjamin F. Butler met a man named Fisher Aimes Hildreth. Fisher lived in the next town over from Lowell where Ben lived in Massachusetts. Ben and Fisher connected immediately and developed a life-long relationship. That same year Fisher invited Ben to his family Thanksgiving meal. It was there, Ben, met Fisher’s daughter, Sarah. According to Ben, Sarah was attractive, educated, and intelligent and, she had a passion for acting. In fact, she appeared in plays in New York and Boston. Ben showed a curiosity for a romantic relationship with Sarah but she was not interested in giving up her career to accompany a small town lawyer just starting out (1).

Sarah Butler

Image result for benjamin f butler

As time went on Sarah acquired popularity and stardom for her work. Ben, worked his way into a successful law office, and the two continued to stay in contact with one another. In May of 1844, after a long courtship, they married. Ben brought Sarah to his home in Lowell, and there they lived until she passed away from “an untimely death” in 1877 (2).

Ben and Sarah’s Children

Together Ben and Sarah created a good sized family: a girl named Blanche, and three sons: Paul, who died at age four, Paul II, and Ben-Israel. Ben-Israel decided to follow his father’s footsteps and enter into public service. He was appointed to West Point, graduated with honors and commissioned Lieutenant. Ben, proud of his son’s accomplishments encouraged Ben-Israel to take command and lead a “regiment of colored troops stationed on the Plains [so that] he might have, in addition to his instructions at the academy, the knowledge of the movement and care of the troops in actual service.” The significance of his decision by Ben Butler was that he wanted his son to acquire some military experience working as a volunteer and not someone who earned rank from being nobility (3).

Tragedy

After completing his military service, Ben-Israel planned to join in partnership with his father Benjamin’s law practice. But as Benjamin writes in his memoir, “I had hoped to lean upon him in my declining years, to take my place in that profession which I love and honor. ‘Man proposes. God disposes.'” Ben-Israel’s unexpected sudden death ended any chance of a father- son career dream for both of them. Ben’s daughter married a Civil War General, Adelbert Ames and raised a family while Paul sought a business career upon his graduation from Harvard. Ben, impressed with Paul’s accomplishment at a prestigious university, felt his choice of school would impact Paul favorably later in life if he desired to enter into politics (4).

A Valued Relationship

Throughout Ben Butler’s military and political career, Sarah, his wife, proved to be one of his staunchest supporters. She advised him from time to time. Her intelligence and education were a great asset to Ben. It allowed him to view his world not only from a humanitarian perspective but also that of a woman. Sarah related to Ben on a different level, but she never interfered and trusted Ben’s final judgment. When Ben experienced political strife and controversy, she remained by his side with poise and dignity (5).

Value of Family

Benjamin F. Butler’s credited his success as a lawyer, veteran, and political figure to the strong family support system he created with his wife, Sarah. He also credits his family upbringing as inspiration and passion for a lifetime of civil service to others. We can interpret his decisions and actions in his life through his experiences and thoughts about them.

 

1. Benjamin F. Butler, Butler’s Book: Autobiography and Personal Reminiscences of Major General Benj F. Butler : A Review of His Legal, Political, and Military Career (Boston: A.M. Thayer & Co., 1892),78-79.

2. 79.

3. 80-89.

4. 80-81.

5. 85.

 

American Pharmacy: Art to Profession


Image result for american pharmacy 1920

Between 1902 and 1952 the American pharmacy transformed from an age-old art to a respected profession. Before the turn of the twentieth century, anyone trained as a druggist through apprenticeship could work in the store as a clerk. They could earn a qualification through state exams. From there opportunity arose to obtain a small pharmaceutical business. Lack of oversight and monitoring of drug manufacturing caused an increase in the circulation of fake drugs in and out of the stores. Pharmacists worked together to come up with a system to legitimize their trade and businesses. New York was the first to lead the way in requiring state board certification proceeded by at least two years of college. Soon all the states followed suit until the whole country united pharmaceutical standards (1).

Image result for no jobs 1929

Even though most pharmacists had been the sole proprietors of their businesses and worked long hours each day, hiring assistants became a temporary fix. Because the pharmacist could not operate and manage the store properly at the same time,  cheap manufacturing caused problems in customer service areas. Pharmacists failed to keep with demand for a quality product, and popularity of assistants in the stores diminished. Further problems arose about legal qualifications of pharmacy assistants. The positions of those helpers phased out in the 1920s (2).

Image result for old drug stores 1920s

Image result for old drug stores 1920s

The corner drug store phenomenon ended abruptly by the introduction of retail chains taking over several of the businesses. Walgreens was one of the first chains to do this in the first part of the century. The mass production of manufactured drugs entered the market and stifled the need for compounding. Pre-Made drugs were readily available in supermarkets. Smaller drug stores could mot compete for customers, and only a few remained in operation (3).

Image result for cheap drugs 1920s

In 1929 pharmacists began selling “generic home remedies.” These labeled medicines included the pharmacists’ name, photo, and signature. They then marketed touted the drugs as an innovative, and a new way for people to treat symptoms at home. Some of these medicines were not legitimate, however. To combat this and save their businesses, pharmacists patented their medicinal creations (4).

Image result for closed drug stores 1930s

Soda fountains entered the pharmacies during prohibition and soon became very popular. Medicines that contained alcohol were consumed inside the pharmacy only. After WWII and due to a lack of personnel to run them, the fountain counters began to disappear, and the ones that remained lost popularity in the 1960s (5).

Image result for hospital pharmacy in 1920

In the 1930s pharmacists occasionally worked in hospitals. But by the 1940s the number of hospital pharmacists’ increased their presence by interning. Hospital pharmacy eased the burden of busy medical staff, and in 1947, the United States government passed the Hospital Survey and Construction Act. This act stressed the need to operate public health centers and provided a one-stop shop medical care facility where folks could get the best care for their medical needs. This act allowed pharmacists to practice their craft in a professional setting and gain public respect for the profession (6).

Between 1902 and 1947 the American Pharmacy changed from an age-old art practiced by those who artfully crafted medicine to a recognized and respected profession. The pharmaceutical trade grew because pharmacists’ changed their methods with the changing times. What had commonly worked in the past, now collided with innovative thinking and creative ideas to broaden the reach to those who needed it. Pharmacists changed their old ways of doing business and in doing so created the opportunity for themselves and those who would take up the profession in the future.

1.Glenn Sonnedecker, The American Practice of Pharmacy, 1902-1952, in Gregory Higby and Elaine Condouris Stroud, American Pharmacy (1852-2002): A Collection of Historical Essays (Madison, WI: American Institute of the History of Pharmacy, 2005), 5.

2. Ibid, 6.

3. Ibid, 7.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid, 8.

6. Ibid, 9-10.

All photos courtesy of Google Images.

 

Some Things about Benjamin Franklin


 

 

Some Things about Benjamin Franklin

In the 1730’s Benjamin Franklin did not consider African or Native Americans as equals. He did not put thought into them at all when thinking of how to improve the quality of life for all Americans. He saw them as unable to be capable of equality because he felt they lacked intellectual intelligence.

He owned slaves. He viewed them as an “investment.”

In 1751, he changed his mind on slavery after visiting a school and watching African-American children. He noticed that they did indeed have the same intellectual intelligence and learning abilities as that of White American children. He saw that their possible contributions to humanity significant and because of this he turned against slavery, publicly condemning it as a “detestable commerce.”

He got involved in abolition and became the president of the Society for the Abolition of Slavery.

He questioned everything.

He was tolerant of people’s religions.

He was commander of a militia that took down the Paxton Boys.

He was his family’s historian. (1)

I have a biography of Benjamin Franklin to read in my personal library. I am very curious about Benjamin Franklin and did not know much about him other than the general knowledge such as his discovery of static lightning. So, I picked up an old college textbook in the free book section of my local library, and when I came to a short essay about him, I found some things that stood out to me as being not only interesting but also important. Benjamin Franklin is a fascinating man because he seems so curious about his world and he devotes his whole life to learning and to the service of others. He never really has a clear path of what he wants.

Benjamin Franklin takes advantage of the opportunities that arise and they direct him to success and achievement. He is not motivated by agendas or thought out plans but uses his experiences to either better himself or others. I find I can relate to him in many ways. I think Benjamin Franklin can teach us a lot about what it means to be a little independent and be able to accomplish things without a roadmap of how to do it. He shows us that we can change our mind over time about issues that are controversial. He shows us the power that knowledge has and how it can lead to opportunities in our lives we could never have dreamed possible.

(1) Meet Dr. Franklin, Richard B. Morris in Portrait of America by Stephen B. Oates, 1999.

Merry Christmas 2016


I hope everyone is enjoying the Christmas holiday in whatever way shape or form is possible. I like this time of year because I can spend quality time with family and friends. I enjoy the old traditions and look forward to making new ones.

This year I came across an American Civil War Christmas poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow ( 1807-1882 ). I thought it would be fun to share. I can relate to it because of the many Christmas holidays I spent away from my family and only doom and gloom surrounded me. Those were difficult times to get through. Still, through it all, I managed to enjoy some of those holidays. Here is the poem. Enjoy!

 

 

longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Photo credit Wikipedia

 

Christmas Bells

    I HEARD the bells on Christmas Day
Their old, familiar carols play,
And wild and sweet
The words repeat
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!

    And thought how, as the day had come,
The belfries of all Christendom
Had rolled along
The unbroken song
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!

    Till ringing, singing on its way,
The world revolved from night to day,
A voice, a chime,
A chant sublime
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!

    Then from each black, accursed mouth
The cannon thundered in the South,
And with the sound
The carols drowned
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!

    It was as if an earthquake rent
The hearth-stones of a continent,
And made forlorn
The households born
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!

    And in despair I bowed my head;
“There is no peace on earth,” I said;
“For hate is strong,
And mocks the song
Of peace on earth, good-will to men!”

    Then pealed the bells more loud and deep:
“God is not dead, nor doth He sleep;
The Wrong shall fail,
The Right prevail,
With peace on earth, good-will to men.” (1)

 

  1. Reference for poem and additional information can be found at http://www.potw.org/archive/potw118.html.

 

Belding Gets a New Newspaper


scan_20161112
Belding Home News, June 19, 1879. Courtesy of the Alvah N. Belding Library-Belding, Michigan.

On June 19, 1879, E. Mudge & L.E. Kendall published volume one, issue one of the Belding Home News newspaper. The proprietors/editors of the paper stated on the front page that the paper aimed to provide a one-stop source of information for Belding and the surrounding towns and counties. This information was meant to enrich the lives of all of these residents. They also explained that they created the paper without affiliation with any political party or religion. Newspapers up until this time were commonly owned and published by political party or their affiliates. With just 600 early subscribers as an investment, the editors dreamed that even though the paper started out small with any luck, it would grow larger and more prosperous.

The first business printed in the press was the meeting “held at the school-house” to plan a 4th of July celebration. On the committee sat folks from Belding, Orleans, Otisco, Grattan, Eureka, and Smyrna. Ladies present at the meeting provided refreshments. They discussed a charity dinner also to be held during the celebration to benefit the Belding Cornet Band. The food was to be provided by folks attending (1).

The paper published various types of announcements in the local section of the newspaper. These included basic things such as the status of R. M. Wilson who had been, “suffering from fever,” a new church erected at Palmer station, as well as the return of DR. G. Conner from Pennsylvania. Another was the mention of Mrs. L. E. Knedall who had “been sick for several weeks with pleurisy” and Dr. C. of Greenville the attending physician. This information was useful to know if you needed a doctor who could treat lung illnesses in the late 19th century. Another mention was the concern Belding residents had over the recent competition in “wool-buying” that had been economically successful in the nearby town of Ionia. The city of Belding wanted in on the action (2).

Ashley Grove held a Strawberry Festival and the proceeds paid for a new church organ. A familiar name in the local section was that of Levi Broas who built a new addition to his farmhouse at the head of Broas street and that “those who know Mr. Broas’ way of doing things will anticipate a fine thing in style and finish.” News of a recent tragedy announced that a young man named Miller whose parents hailed from Fallasbourg, ” was accidentally shot a few days since” and that his internment had been “the Sunday past.” He had been working away from home when the accident occurred (3).

Some more positive news states that Belding had a Literary Club and well-known Elocutionist (a literary reader) Miss Georgia Gates performed some classical readings for a small party of guests who were impressed and well entertained. Also, an announcement mentioned was the successful Strawberry and Ice Cream Festival run by the Ladies Mite Society of The Christian Church that included such festivities as Croquet. Guests had been encouraged “to stay as long as they please.” They had invited everyone to attend (4).

Two gentlemen by the names of Professor J.H. Pixley and S. M. Grannis who were known all over the state to be excellent musicians entertained the “Beldingites.” On the farm of H.H. Belding and maintained by Mr. S. Case the paper announced, that the from the cattle raised there farmers produced cream in the “Cooley Creamer”, and then directly shipped the cream to Chicago at the price of twenty cents per pound. This was a good business exchange for the town and worth noting (5).

Advertisements in the paper show that the city provided transportation in town by way of a horse-car. This car connected folks with the D.L. & N.R.R. and brought mail to and from the town (6).

The first new newspaper in Belding shows the attitudes folks had about their town and how they felt about community. Sharing good and bad news surely brightened folks’ days when they read the information presented there. Even though there is no newspaper today for the city of Belding, the town still shares information through social networks online and by word of mouth. They continue to show support for their fellow citizens and ensuring everyone is included in the town activities which are created to enrich lives and bring prosperity.

Notes:

1. E. Mudge and L.E.Kendall, eds. Belding Home News, (Belding, 1879), 1.

2. Ibid, 2.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.; The History of Jasper County, Missouri: Including a Condensed History of the State, a Complete History of Carthage and Joplin, Other Towns and Townships … (Mills & Company, Des Moines, Iowa, 1883), 287. https://books.google.com/books?id=TtEyAQAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA18&dq=miss+georgia+gates+carthage+missouri&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjZl7_62KPQAhXBwFQKHRrAABkQ6AEIIDAB#v=onepage&q=miss%20georgia%20gates%20carthage%20missouri&f=false. Accessed November 12, 2016). This page lists Georgia Gates living in Carthage Missouri that proves she did indeed exist.

5. Ibid, 3.

6. Ibid.

Christopher Columbus the Explorer


christopher-columbus-ships

“Christopher Columbus, Discoverer of the New World, was foremost a sailor.”  Being a discoverer of the New World has stirred controversy and debate. It even questions historical accuracy about him. What is correct about Christopher Columbus is that he was an explorer. Exploring was his passion. From a small child to an adult, Christopher Columbus imagined and dreamed of discovering new maritime pathways in vast oceans near where he lived (1).

In the country of Genoa where Christopher was born sometime in 1451, statistical authorities did not keep historical records of exact birth dates, so his is unknown. He was born to Catholic parents who were staunchly religious. He grew up learning the art of sailing on his Dad’s fishing boat. From there he and his brother pursued a career in map charting not just any map but ocean map charting.

As Christopher studied maps day and night, he consulted his Bible, particularly the books and verses of the Old Testament to guide him into new discoveries of oceanic routes. His ultimate goal was to find a more efficient course to the West Indies, which was located in East Asia. Because the continent of Africa created a long diversion, Christopher sensed he could find a shorter route by bypassing Africa altogether. The problem for him was his calculations along with previously traveled passages did not tell him exactly where to begin his journey of discovery. He had a hunch though and became obsessed with finding his route.

Poverty was a way of life for Christopher in his youth. Due to this, he had a hard time getting sponsors to back his quest financially. Families that were wealthy had prestige and were noticed and respected by the Royal family.  Christopher knew a shorter route would buy him wealth and a successful mission would bring prestige he needed to get the recognition for future explorations. After many failed attempts by Christopher to win the favor of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Christopher began to give up on receiving funding for his explorations. In a twist of fate, the Royal family accountant encouraged his superiors to accept Christopher’s offer of a commissioned bonus that he would share with Ferdinand and Isabella. All parties agreed with the proposal and soon Christopher was well on his way in new voyages of exploration.

Along the discovery of a quicker route to the West Indies Jews looked to hop aboard and travel as well in search of new continents to settle. However, Christopher refused to do so but wished them goodwill. Ferdinand and Isabella expelled Jews from the country of Spain previously. Naturally, this created conflict with Christopher and those who backed him financially. Everyone aboard the ship was required to practice religion. Usually a morning prayer and song was conducted by an individual each day.

Once Christopher arrived ashore, he thought he had landed at the West Indies and so when Christopher met the native inhabitants he called them, “Indians.”  Europe quickly caught onto the term to identify similar native inhabitants they could not identify. Christopher wanted to enslave the locals for labor and to convert them to Christianity. He felt God sent these peoples to “aid” Europeans in colonizing new land.  Miscommunications about a bountiful supply of gold and bejeweled decorations further cemented divine justification of colonization. Natives in future explorations of the island brought Christopher Columbus in contact with tobacco. These things he could bring back to show evidence of a successful mission (2).

After sending a letter back to the Spain updating the crown of his missions, Christopher awaited a response to his report. He got it. He also obtained his coveted title (count) which gave him prestige and clout with the Royals. This promotion elevated him from commoner to respected voyager and explorer. It also opened up state funding of another voyage supported by the Royals. Since Christopher was also a trader,  it was natural to him to come up with a plan colonize Hispaniola. Because this would be a major stop along the route to the West Indies, it could impact the trade routes in many economical ways Christopher knew would benefit the Royals as well as himself. Also natural was to hire priests to convert and control natives who might protest the colonization (3).

Christopher brought some residents back to Spain with him to show the Ferdinand and Isabella of the people who inhabited the island. The Royals had the natives baptized, but once they arrived they were introduced to European diseases. When Christopher returned to Hispaniola, some of his crew became exposed to syphilis there. The native people who had grown up there for thousands of years were either immune or could fend off the disease. Europeans had no natural immunity to disease of the New World. Most of the labor population was wiped out shortly after Christopher’s expedition due to intermixing of natives and Europeans (4).

Christopher Columbus did not discover America, but he did discover lands unfamilar to the Spanish crown. His explorations are fascinating to understand in the development of the New World, colonization and how people viewed each other in this curious time.

1.  Samuel Eliot Morison, Christopher Columbus: Mariner (Meridian, 1983), 3. ; http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/10/14/232120128/how-columbus-sailed-into-u-s-history-thanks-to-italians.

2. Morison, 52.

3. Morison, 72.

4. Morison, 86.

 

Blog at WordPress.com.

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: